International Research Journal of Education and Innovation <ul> <li><strong>Journal Name</strong>: International Research Journal of Education and Innovation</li> <li><strong>ISSN (Print)</strong> : 2710-043X</li> <li><strong>ISSN (Electronic)</strong>: 2710-0448</li> <li><strong>HEC Pakistan Rank</strong>: Y</li> <li><strong>Frequency</strong>: <strong><span lang="EN-US">Quarterly </span></strong>(4 issues per year)</li> <li><strong>Nature</strong>: Print and Online</li> <li><strong>Submission</strong>: Via OJS System</li> <li><strong>Languages of Publication:</strong> English</li> </ul> en-US (ADMIN) (ADMIN) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 School Climate and its Relationship with Students’ Academic Achievement <p>This correlational study is to describe the levels of school climate and its relationship with students’ academic achievement. The population of the study consisted of all students of Zarghoon Town, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan who were attending public high schools. In accordance with the L.R. Gay criterion, out of 1650, 328 students or 20% of the class was chosen as the sample. One sample t-test was used to determine how students felt about the school, and Pearson Correlation was used to determine how well students performed academically in relation to the school atmosphere. According to the study's findings, students believe that having a supportive school environment is crucial for their academic achievement. Additionally, there is a correlation between students' academic success and the climate of the school.</p> Saeed Khan, Muhammad Ehsan, Farman Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2022 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation (July to September 2021) Wed, 08 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between Students’ Social Anxiety and their Self-Esteem at University Level <p>Social anxiety is a significant problem faced by students in general but at university level. This anxiety negatively affects students’ self-esteem which motivated the scholars to investigate the relationship between students’ social anxiety and their self-esteem. The focus was to investigate the level of students’ social anxiety, their self-esteem level, and the relationship between them. Following null hypotheses, the researchers adopted quantitative correlational research design. Students at Universities in Malakand division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa constituted the population and through simple random sampling techniques a sample group of 139 students constituted the sample group. The data obtained from the selected respondents through two questionnaires Students Social Anxiety Questionnaire (SSAQ) and Students’ Self-esteem Questionnaire (SSQ). Both these questionnaires were pilot tested to ensure reliability, and its content validity was measured through expert opinions. The collected data was analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS software. The results revealed that average level of social anxiety among students was found, and a high-level of self-esteem was calculated for the students. Furthermore, the results also showed a positive but low correlation between students’ social anxiety and their self-esteem. Based on these results, it was concluded that students are afraid of different social situations including social interactions, making friends and trust on others. Therefore, the researcher recommended the families of all students, to socially interact their children to build their social skills and to the end of their fear and weakness in front of strangers. The researcher mostly recommended to the teacher to involves the students of different curricula, extracurricular activity, and co-Caracalla activities.</p> Muhammad Asif Khan Copyright (c) 2022 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation (July to September 2021) Wed, 08 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analyses of Environmental Risk Management at Secondary Schools Level in Punjab and its Effect on Students’ Academic Achievement <p>The research objective was to diagnose various environmental risks in schools and evaluate their remediation. Various environmental risks were analyzed in schools, such as disasters like earthquakes and school building position, floods, storms, rain, drainage, dengue activities, laboratory waste, dirt in the classroom, children's noise, traffic noise outside the school, school roads during rain situation, prevention of load shedding, protection from heat and cold, first aid in case of accidents, lightning, ventilation, school environment etc. The study population was the entire Punjab secondary schools, and the results are generalized to the whole of Punjab secondary schools. In the sample, schools of 9 divisions of Punjab were included, and 12 schools were taken from every division, including six male and six female schools, in which public and private schools were taken in equal numbers. Data was captured using a Likert scale. It was concluded that the headteachers of the Dera Ghazi Khan division were well aware of environmental risks and had more knowledge about them. Second was the headteachers of Lahore. Headteachers of Sahiwal and Bahawalpur had very little knowledge about environmental risk. The heads of Gujranwala were at the forefront of risk management, and the Dera Ghazi Khan division was the second. The headteachers of Sahiwal were lagging in terms of risk management. The headteachers of Lahore were found to be using the risk management budget in the proper place, while the headteachers of Sahiwal were not spending the budget appropriately. The records of the schools were also checked, and the schools that were least interested in risk management had lower results than those at the forefront of risk management. It is recommended that headteachers of all secondary schools increase their knowledge about environmental risk and make timely arrangements for its remediation and budget allocation.</p> Sabir Hussain, Qaisar Abbas, Altaf Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation (July to September 2021) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Deadly Epidemic of Covid-19 in Pakistan and the Socio-economic contribution of Ghazi University during 2020-2021 <p>The educational institutions have been played a central role in the growth of nations and their social evolution especially in emergencies. Therefore, the educational institutions always seem to be the brain of nations and they act as think tanks and are considered to be at the forefront of changing the destiny of the work and they are considered as the center of nation building. If we look at the pages of history, from the invasion of the Tartars to the promiscuity of Al-Azhar University and the horrors of World War II, the veterans of Oxford and Cambridge played their role well during the roar of warships. The role of these institutions in difficult situations was no less than a great achievement۔ Contrary to the visible aggressor, the modern-day attacker, popularly known as Code-19, secretly broke out in a fit of rage against humanity which is not easy to compete. In these circumstances, the educational and social role of Ghazi University as the inheritor of the centers of learning and the golden tradition, is unforgettable and has been enriched with golden words throughout history. This research paper explores the positive role and contribution of Ghazi University Dera Ghazi Khan which as paid for the construction and development of the nation.</p> Dr. Sohail Akhtar, Amara Mushtaq, Tayyiba Anum Copyright (c) 2022 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation (July to September 2021) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analytical Study of Tuman Buzdar Under the British Rule: A Historical Perspective <p>Buzdar is considered one of the important tribes of Dera Ghazi Khan and it remained under the colonial period with massive resistance against the colonial period. The Buzdar tribe is living on the border of Dera Ghazi Khan were a constant headache for the British administration. At, first the Government has given the responsibility of financing the Buzdar Sardar and collecting taxes from the area under British control. Shortly afterwards in 1857, they were relieved this responsibility. In the same year, a punitive campaign was decided against Buzdars.</p> Muhammad Sadeeq Baloch, Sohail Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation (July to September 2021) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000