International Research Journal of Education and Innovation https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei <ul> <li><strong>Journal Name</strong>: International Research Journal of Education and Innovation</li> <li><strong>ISSN (Print)</strong> : 2710-043X</li> <li><strong>ISSN (Electronic)</strong>: 2710-0448</li> <li><strong>Frequency</strong>: <strong><span lang="EN-US">Quarterly </span></strong>(4 issues per year)</li> <li><strong>Nature</strong>: Print and Online</li> <li><strong>Submission</strong>: Via OJS System</li> <li><strong>Languages of Publication:</strong> English</li> </ul> en-US editor.irjei@gmail.com (ADMIN) editor.irjei@gmail.com (ADMIN) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Prevailing Criminal Justice System in Pakistan (Adversarial System) https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei/article/view/189 <p>The status, welfare and prosperity of a society are dependent upon the rule of law and systematic dispensation of justice to all its citizens indiscriminately.<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1">[i]</a> The Judiciary is not only responsible for effective administration of justice (both criminal and civil), but also for its speedy and economical dispensation to all citizens of the state; hence, it is considered as one of the most important pillars of the State. The system developed for the administration of justice is commonly known as the Judicial System of a state. The Pakistani criminal justice system is commonly branded and known as faulty and inequitable one<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2">[ii]</a>due to problems faced: prior to setting law into motion, during investigation,<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3">[iii]</a> and lastly protracted trial and appeals in the courts.<a href="#_edn4" name="_ednref4">[iv]</a>Out of many other factors a few are: lack of adequate training, non-availability of modern investigation tools, outdated and archaic laws, particularly procedural laws, multiplicity and pendency of cases, and heavy court back-log. As we have adopted a ready-made alien criminal justice system from British rulers, the system suffers mostly due to the obsolete legal procedures which had been formulated as far as more than 150 years ago. In modern world, there are two prominent and predominant justice systems at work: adversarial and inquisitorial. This article is an attempt to appraise and critical evaluation of adversarial system as adopted in Pakistan, and to suggest vital and structural changes to make the prevailing criminal justice system of Pakistan more effective, speedy, economical, victim-friendly, just, modern and capable to keep up with the ever-changing socio-economical environment.</p> Liaqat Ali Khoso Copyright (c) 2023 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei/article/view/189 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study on Role of Read Foundation in Social and Moral Development of Students at The Secondary Level https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei/article/view/190 <p>Moral and social values are considered as the bottom line values in the development of any society as well as of individuals serving in that particular society, as our religion Islam demonstrates its significance at different occasions. In a very professional and practical point of view it is much clear that these types of values could be attained only through quality education and continuous guidance at different stages of an individual life where different organizations are providing education with their best effort. READ foundation is one of them which is also providing the helping hand to education, that’s why researcher explored the role of READ Foundation in social and moral development of students at secondary level. The major objectives of this research study were to evaluate the role of READ Foundation in moral and social development of students at secondary level and to compare the role of READ Foundation in moral and social development between male and female students at secondary level in the district Kotli (AJ&amp;K). The Population of the study was 376 secondary school teachers in total, 174 male and 202 female. The sample was chosen in accordance with Sample Size Determination Technique consisted 84 female and 72 male. A self-created questionnaire was served as the research instrument. The instrument was validated through three different experts from the department of education MIU and also from university of Kotli through Personal visits and emails. The reliability of the instrument was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha with the SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) based on the findings of the pilot testing. The instrument’s dependability was determined to be .855(range 0.4-0.9) which showed that the instrument was appropriate (highly reliable) for conducting the survey.&nbsp; Pilot testing was conducted by giving questionnaires to 18 secondary school teachers (11 female and 7 male) who were with in the population but not included in the sample. Data were gathered through the planning of in-person meetings, emails, WhatsApp messages, and postal addresses. The percentage, mean and independent sample t-tests were used to analyze the data. As a result of the study’s findings, the READ foundation’s development education program should be improved according to some suggested rules. To give its teachers a better learning environment, READ Foundation may revise its retention policy. For the purpose of enhancing the development education in the contemporary era, READ Foundation. READ Foundation may concentrate on holding seminars, workshops, and training in their institutions. To share their experiences, the READ Foundation may work with the public sector. The social development of female pupils must be greatly improved. Curricular activities have a beneficial effect on students' development, it is necessary to enhance those activities.</p> Afif Akber, Muhammad Rifaqat, Abdul Karim Copyright (c) 2023 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei/article/view/190 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Rural Education and Development (Read) Foundation and Public Secondary Schools in Azad Jammu and Kashmir https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei/article/view/191 <p>The aim of the study was to compare the performance of READ foundation and public secondary schools in term of teachers’ qualifications, physical facilities, child safety, instructional planning, classroom management and students’ academic achievements in AJ&amp;K. The main objectives of this research study was to compare the performance of READ foundation and Public secondary schools in term of teachers’ qualification, physical facilities, child safety, instructional planning, classroom management and students’ academic achievements in district Kotli of AJ&amp;K. The population of the study was included all secondary schools’ teachers of READ foundation and Public sectors in district Kotli of AJ&amp;K. There were total 825 secondary schools’ teachers, 376 teachers from READ foundation secondary schools and 449 teachers from Public secondary schools in district Kotli of AJ&amp;K. Simple random sampling technique was used for selecting sample size. There were 175 secondary schools teachers from READ foundation and 205 secondary schools teachers from Public schools were selected as sample. The sample was selected according to table of Morgan (1970). The study was descriptive and quantitative in nature. The researcher used “Survey method” for collecting the data. Self-made questionnaire was used as research instrument in this study. Data was collected through personal visits, E-mails, WhatsApp and postal address. Data was examined through percentage, mean, standard deviation and independent sample t-test. The independent sample t-test reveals that there is no significant difference in teachers’ qualification of READ foundation and Public secondary schools. The independent sample t-test indicates that there is a significant difference in READ foundation and Public secondary schools regarding physical facilities, child safety, instructional planning, classroom management and students’ academic achievements. The findings of the study recommended some guide lines to be made for improving education system of READ foundation and Public secondary schools. READ foundation and Public sector may provide a forum for their teachers to share their experiences to each other. Government may upgrade their teachers and head teachers regarding instructional planning and classroom management as well as effective use of physical facilities. READ foundation may upgrade their physical infrastructural of their schools with the help of government of AJ&amp;K and different rich people. Both sectors should organize ongoing trainings for their teachers in order to meet the challenges of modern era. Both sectors may collaborate to each other so that education system of AJ&amp;K can be developed.</p> Muhammad Awais Hashmi, Abdul Karim, Muhammad Rifaqat Copyright (c) 2023 International Research Journal of Education and Innovation https://irjei.com/index.php/irjei/article/view/191 Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000