Impact of ILE on Learners’ Motivation while Learning Mathematics at Secondary School Level


  • Saima Afzal PhD Scholar, Education Department, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad.
  • Qurat-ul-Ain Hina Assistant Professor, Education Department, National University of Modern Languages.



Interactive Learning Environment, Motivation, Teacher Support, Cooperation, Equity, Task orientation, Student’s cohesiveness, Student’s involvement and Investigation


This paper reports a quantitative study related to Interactive Learning Environment and motivation of secondary school mathematics students. The aim of this research was to measure the impact of Interactive Learning Environment on Student’s motivation. The respondents were chosen from the public secondary schools situated in Islamabad (Federal Territory), working under control of Federal Directorate of school education. There were 101 public schools out of which 56 were for girls and 45 were for boys. This research study was delimited to pupil of grade 10th only. Total 12810 students were studying in these schools in grade tenth, out of which about 2 percent were selected randomly. Thus the sample of the study was 260 students.  A questionnaire “What Is Happening in the Class (WIHIC)”was adapted and utilized to study the prevailing practices regarding to learning environment of the classroom. To determine the students’ level of motivation “Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS)” was used. The instruments were validated by professionals from the field of education and educational psychology. The reliability of the instrument was determined by using Cronbach Alpha which was found 0.89 for WIHIC questionnaire and 0.82 for MAS. Student’s cohesiveness was found most prevailing practice related to classroom learning environment in maths classrooms and maximum number of the students were at medium level of motivation. Findings also reveal that Interactive learning environment motivate the learners utmost. The major recommendation of the study was that learning environment may be interactive and directed in such a way that it should motivate the learners to learn and perform better.


Friedel, J., Cortina, K., Turner, J. & Midgley, C. (2007). Achievement goals, efficacy beliefs and coping strategies in mathematics: The roles of perceived parent and teacher goals emphases. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32, 434–458.

Elliot, ?., Henrly, K., Sell, M. & Maier, M. (2005). Achievement goals, performance contingencies, and performance attainment: An experimental test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 630–640.

Fraser, B. J. (2002a). Learning environments research: yesterday, today and tomorrow. In s. C. Goh& M. S. Khine (Eds.), Studies in educational learning environments: an interpersonal perspective (pp. 1-27). Singapore: World Scientific Publishers.

Kim, H. B., Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). Classroom environment and teacher interpersonal behaviour in secondary science classes in Korea. Evaluation and Research in Education, 14, 3-22.

Maat and E. Zakaria, (2010). The learning environment, teacher’s factor and student’s attitudes towards mathematics amongst engineering technology students. International Journal of Academic Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 16–20.

Mobeenul Islam, (2012). Impact of students’ perceptions about teacher interaction and classroom learning environment on attitude towards mathematics and achievement. Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Lahore: IER, University of the Punjab.

Zembylas, M. (2004). Young children’s emotional practices while engaged in long-term science investigation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(7), 693-719.

Relationships between university students’ achievement motivation, attitude and academic performance in Malaysia Kamariah Abu Bakara *, Rohani Ahmad Tarmizia , RahilMahyuddina , HabibahEliasa , Wong Su Luana , Ahmad FauziMohdAyuba a Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia Received November 9, 2009; revised December 10, 2009; accepted January 21, 2010

Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2 (2010) 4906–4910

Abbas, A. S. & Nawaz, A. (2013). An Analysis of the Problems in Teaching and Learning Mathematics in Pakistan. International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 4(3), 379-393. Retrieved from ARInt./Vol.4(3)/2013(4.3-41).pdf

Aldridge, J., & Fraser, B. (2000).A cross-cultural study of classroom learning environments in Australia and Taiwan. Learning Environments Research, 3(2), 101- 134.

Brophy, J. & Good, T. (2005). Teacher Behavior and Student Achievement. In M. Wittrock (Ed.) Handbook ar Research on Teaching (3rd ed). Macm.

Charles,C,M. (2005). Building Classroom Discipline. Collaboration by Gail W Senter. Emeritus San Diego state university. Eight edition.

Cummings, C. (2001). Strategies for Classroom Management. Teaching, inc. Virginia, USA

Covington, M. V. (2000). Goal theory, motivation, and school achievement: An integrative review. Annual review of psychology, 51(1), 171-200.

Fraser, B. J. (2012). Classroom Environment (RLE Edu O). Routledge.

Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S., & Gottfried, A. W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(1), 3–13.

Guay, F., Chanal, J., Ratelle, C. F., Marsh, H. W., Larose, S., &Boivin, M. (2010). Intrinsic, identified, and controlled types of motivation for school subjects in young elementary school children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(4), 711–735.

Hassanzadeh R, Amuee N (Translators). [Angizeshbarayeyadgiry (as nazariyye taamal)]. Stapic DJ (Author). Tehran: Donyaye pajohesh.2001. [Persian]

Henderson, D., Fisher, D., & Fraser, B. (2000). Interpersonal behavior, laboratory learning environments, and student outcomes in senior biology classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 37(1), 26-43.

Kim, H. B., Fisher, D. L., & Fraser, B. J. (2000). Classroom environment and teacher interpersonal behaviour in secondary science classes in Korea. Evaluation and Research in Education, 14, 3-22.

Kudari, J.M. (2016). Survey on the Factors Influencing the Student’s Academic Performance. International Journal of Emerging Research in Management and Technology, 5(6), 30-36. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from

Maganga, J.H. (2016). Factors Affecting Student’s Academic Performance: A Case Study Of Public Secondary Schools in Ilala District, Dar-es-salaam, Tanzania. University of Tanzania. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from

Maina, M.J. (2010). Strategies Employed by Secondary School Principals to Improve Academic Performance in Embu West District. Kenyatta University. Retrieved April 25, 2018 from Minnaert, A., Boekaerts, M., & de Brabander, C. (2007) Autonomy, competence, and social relatedness in task interest within project-based education. Psychological Reports, 101, 574-586.

Mohamadi Y (Translator). [Understanding motivation and emotion].Reev JM (Author). 4th ed. Tehran:Virayesh. 2006. [Persian]

Mohamadi Y (Translator). [Educational psychology: theory and practice]. Slavin RE (Author).Tehran:Virayesh. 2006. [Persian]

Myint, S. K. (2001). Using the WlHlC questionnaire to measure the learning environment. Teaching and Learning, 22(2), 54-61.

Omidiyan M (Translator). [Educational psychology]. Santrock JW (Author). Yazd: Yazd University.2006. [Persian]

Opdenakker, M. C., & Minnaert, A. (2011). Relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement. Psychological Reports, 109(1), 259-284.

Prenzel, M., Kramer, K., & Drechsel, B. (2001). Selbstbestimmt motiviertes and interessiertes Lernen in der kaufmännischen Erstausbildung: Ergebnisse des Gesamtprojektes [Intrinsic motivation and motivated learning in primary mercantile education: Results of the complete project]. In K. Beck & V. Krumm (Eds.), Lehren und Lernen in derberuflichenErstausbildung.KonzeptefüreinemodernekaufmännischeBerufsqualifizierung(pp.37-61). Opladen:Leske+ Budrich.

Rogoff, B. (2003). The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York, Oxford University Press. The Cultural Nature of Human Development. New York, OxfordUniversity Press.

Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation intrinsicmotivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2009). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being.In K.R. Wentzel, & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of school motivation (pp. 171–196). New York, NY: Routledge.

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2004). The Math Wars. Educational Policy, 18(1), 253-286.

Scheerens, J., Luyten, H., Steen, R., &Luyten-de Thouars, Y. (2007). Review and meta-analyses of school and teaching effectiveness. Enschede: Department of Educational Organisation and Management, University of Twente.

Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., &Furrer, C. J. (2009) A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: conceptualization and assessment of children’s behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 493-525.

Tsai, C. C. (2003). Taiwanese science students' and teachers' perceptions of the Laboratory learning environments: Exploring epistemological gaps. International Journal of Science Education, 25(7), 847-860.

Typhoon International Corp. (2004). The International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language: Encyclopedic Edition. USA: Trident Press International.

Utsumi, M., C., & Mendes, C.R. (2000), Short reports: researching the attitudes towards mathematics in basic education, Educational Psychology, 20, 2, 237–43.

Utvaer, B. K. S., & Haugan, G. (2016). The academic motivation scale: dimensionality, reliability, and construct validity among vocational students. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 6(2), 17-45.

Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical Model. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), The motivation and self-determination of behavior: Theoretical and applied issues (pp. 37–63). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Windschitl, M., Thompson, J., & Braaten, M. (2007). Beyond the scientific method: Model-based inquiry as a new paradigm of preference for school science. Science Education, 92(5), 41–967.doi:10.1002/sce.20259

Wilkins, J. L., & Ma, X. (2002). Predicting student growth in mathematical content knowledge. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(5), 288-298.

Wong, S. L., Hodson, D., Kwan, J., & Yung, B.H.W. (2008). Turning crisis into opportunity: Enhancing student teachers ‘understanding of the nature of science and scientific inquiry through a case study of the scientific research in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome. International Journal of Science Education,30(11), 1417–1439

Worswick, C. (2004). Adaptation and inequality: Children of immigrants in Canadian schools. Canadian Journal of Economics, 37, 53–77.

Wubbels, T., & Brekelmans, M. (2005) Two decades of research on teacher-student relationships in class. International Journal of Educational Research, 43, 6-24.

Wubbels, T., Brekelmans, M., Denbrok, P., &Tartwijk, J. (2006) An interpersonal perspective on classroom management in secondary classrooms in The Netherlands.`In C. M. Evertson & C. S. Weinstein (Eds.), Handbook of classroom management: research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Pp. 1161-1191.




How to Cite

Afzal, S., & Hina, Q.- ul-A. (2021). Impact of ILE on Learners’ Motivation while Learning Mathematics at Secondary School Level. International Research Journal of Education and Innovation, 2(3), 207–224.