Students’ Morality Development in Primary Public Schools of Sindh Province: An Application of Moral Foundation Theory


  • Narjis Unar PhD Scholar, Department of Education Institute of Business Management Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Prof. Dr. Nasreen Hussain Advisor to President, Institute of Business management Karachi, Pakistan.



Students’ Moral Development, Role of Principals, Curriculum Effectiveness, Public Primary Schools, Sindh


The paper investigated the effectiveness of the implemented curriculum in emphasizing the moral values of students in primary public sector schools in Sindh. Also it analyzes the role played by the school principals/head teachers in promoting moral values among students. The paper also explored how teachers at primary schools contribute to developing the moral values of students. The study has collected 177 responses from the teachers of primary public level schools of five districts of Sindh province using purposive sampling technique while PLS-SEM has been employed for data analysis using SmartPLS v3.2.9. The results have shown that effectiveness of curriculum, teachers’ implicit beliefs, and role of principals have positive effect on students’ moral development while teachers’ implicit beliefs and role of principals have positive effect on role of teachers; whereas, teachers’ implicit beliefs and role of principals have positive effect on effectiveness of curriculum. The mediation analysis showed that effectiveness of curriculum has positive mediation between teachers’ implicit beliefs and role of principals towards students’ moral development. However, socioeconomic support has no significant moderating effect on the role of curriculum effectiveness, teachers’ and principals’ role towards students’ moral development. In this regards, it has been recommended that schools can best promote students' moral growth by assisting instructors in coping with the difficulties of their jobs and developing teachers' capacity for introspection and empathy. Students undoubtedly benefit from community service, being reminded of essential qualities, and developing good habits.


Abboud, P. (2017). Supporting a growth mindset in high school classroom teachers Brandman University].

Abdolmaleki, S., Maleki, H., & Asadi, F. (2018). Effective teaching component of teachers in curriculum planning. Research in Curriculum Planning, 15(59), 95-114.

Adejumo, M. (2017). Beyond socioeconomic status: The impact of principal leadership in urban and high poverty turnaround schools.

Ahmed, M., & Khan, A. M. (2020). Analysis of national educational initiatives (2000-2019) for promoting primary education in Pakistan. Journal of Educational Research, 23(1), 131-147.

Alkhazaleh, M. S., & Al-Srehan, H. S. (2019). The role of principals and teachers of kindergartens in the development of ethical behavior among children in the UAE. Ilkogretim Online, 18(3).

Amir, S., Sharf, N., & Khan, R. A. (2020). Pakistan’s Education System: An Analysis of Education Policies and Drawbacks. Electronic Research Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2.

Andedo, J. A., Ajowi, J. O., & Aloka, P. J. (2021). Influence of Principals’ Professional Training on Creating Professional Learning Communities in Selected Kenyan Secondary Schools.

Asif, T., Guangming, O., Haider, M. A., Colomer, J., & Kayani, S. (2020). Moral education for sustainable development: Comparison of university teachers’ perceptions in China and Pakistan. Sustainability, 12(7), 3014.

Avkiran, N., & Ringle, C. (2018). Partial least squares structural equation modeling. Handbook of Market Research (Vol. 267).

Babadjanova, N. (2020). Effective classroom management techniques for curriculum of 21st century. Science and Education, 1(7).

Bamkin, S. (2018). Reforms to strengthen moral education in Japan: A preliminary analysis of implementation in schools. Contemporary Japan, 30(1), 78-96.

Bizzo, N., & Caravita, S. (2012). School textbooks and updated sound science: narrowing the gap between classrooms and cutting edge science. In (Vol. 46, pp. 1-3): Taylor & Francis.

Bourke, M., Kinsella, W., & Prendeville, P. (2020). The implementation of an ethical education curriculum in secondary schools in Ireland. Education Sciences, 10(1), 14-33.

Burgoon, J. N. (2018). The Moral Foundations of Teaching: Measuring Teachers' Implicit Moral Beliefs. The University of Toledo.

Bussey, K., & Hill, D. (2017). Care as curriculum: Investigating teachers’ views on the learning in care. Early Child Development and Care, 187(1), 128-137.

Castillo, J. (2018). Moral Commitment and Ethical Action In the Classroom: Integrating Morality, Ethics, and Values into Curriculum.

Cherkowski, S., Kutsyuruba, B., & Walker, K. (2020). Positive leadership: animating purpose, presence, passion and play for flourishing in schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 58(4), 401-415.

Cheung, G. W., & Wang, C. (2017). Current approaches for assessing convergent and discriminant validity with SEM: Issues and solutions. Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, Briarcliff Manor, NY.

Emambokus, W. B. S. (2021). Investigating teachers’, students’ and parents’ perspectives concerning school-based morality education: a case study in a multicultural background in Mauritius. International Journal of Ethics Education, 6(1), 21-35.

Erdogan, E., & Cavli, E. (2019). Investigation of Organizational Commitment Levels of Physical Education and Classroom Teachers. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(1), 259-265.

Faas, D., Smith, A., & Darmody, M. (2018). The role of principals in creating inclusive school environments: insights from community national schools in Ireland. School Leadership & Management, 38(4), 457-473.

Farisia, H. (2020). Nurturing Religious and Moral Values at Early Childhood Education. Didaktika Religia, 8(1), 1-27.

Farsakhanova, D. (2020). Improvement of the methodology of spiritual and moral education of students of pedagogical institutions. ????? ??????? ?????????? JSPI.

Fitria, H., & Suminah, S. (2020). Role of Teachers in Digital Instructional Era. Journal of Social Work and Science Education, 1(1), 70-77.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of marketing research, 18(3), 382-388.

Friesen, D. C., & Cunning, D. (2020). Making explicit pre-service teachers’ implicit beliefs about inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 24(14), 1494-1508.

Ghasemzadeh, A., Mohammadi, M., & Minaei, H. (2021). Ethical Challenges of School Principals during of COVID-19. International Journal of Ethics and Society, 3(1), 15-23.

Ghorai, N. D., Khan, S., & Mohakud, L. L. (2021). Influence of Family Backgrounds on Moral Values in Higher Secondary Students.

Gofton, W., & Regehr, G. (2006). What we don't know we are teaching: unveiling the hidden curriculum. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research®, 449, 20-27.

Grissom, J. A., Egalite, A. J., & Lindsay, C. A. (2021). How Principals Affect Students and Schools: A Systematic Synthesis of Two Decades of Research. Research Report. Wallace Foundation.

Gunawan, D., Utanto, Y., & Maretta, Y. A. (2017). An analysis on indonesian teachers’ reasoning in resolving moral dilemmas. Man In India, 97(2), 829-841.

Gunawan, I., Bafadal, I., Nurabadi, A., & Prayoga, A. G. (2020). Identification of Themes in the Moral Debate Program as an Effort to Increase Work Integrity of Principal. 2nd Early Childhood and Primary Childhood Education (ECPE 2020),

Haidt, J., & Joseph, C. (2004). Intuitive ethics: How innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues. Daedalus, 133(4), 55-66.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 40(3), 414-433.

Hair Jr, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Hopkins, L., & Kuppelwieser, V. G. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). European business review.

Han, H. (2014). Analysing theoretical frameworks of moral education through Lakatos’s philosophy of science. Journal of Moral Education, 43(1), 32-53.

Hanhimäki, E., & Tirri, K. (2008). The moral role and characteristics of Finnish urban school principals. Journal of Research in Character Education, 6(1).

Hidayah, R. (2021). Students’ Self-Adjustment, Self-Control, and Morality. Journal of Social Studies Education Research, 12(1), 174-193.

Ilaltdinova, E. Y., Frolova, S. V., & Lebedeva, I. V. (2017). Top qualities of great teachers: National and universal. International Conference on Linguistic and Cultural Studies,

Iqbal, J., Khaleeq, A. R., & Ramzan, M. (2018). Role of Teachers in Moral Development of Primary Level Students. Journal of Elementary Education, 28(2), 97-106.

Juharyanto, J., Arifin, I., Bafadal, I., Sobri, A. Y., & Nurabadi, A. (2018). Dominant leadership of school principals in the implementation of curriculum 2013 in religious based school Indonesia. Asia Proceedings of Social Sciences, 2(4), 47-51.

Julia, J., Supriatna, E., Isrokatun, I., Aisyah, I., Nuryani, R., & Odebode, A. A. (2020). Moral Education (2010-2019): A Bibliometric Study (Part 1). Online Submission, 8(6), 2554-2568.

Kavakli, N., & Arslan, S. (2019). Revisiting the role of an EFL teacher as an educational leader: conceptions and perceptions. In Selected Discussions on Social Science Research (pp. 661-682). Frontpage Publications.

Khan, S. R., Bauman, D. C., & Javed, U. (2020). A study on the effect of ethical leadership on teachers’ moral motivation at schools in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management.

Khanam, A., & Idris, M. (2020). Morality or Mechanics: A Dilemma for Educational Leaders of 21st Century. Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review, 1(1), 38-55.

Khotimah, K., Widiati, U., Mustofa, M., & Ubaidillah, M. F. (2019). Autonomous English learning: Teachers’ and students’ perceptions. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 371-381.

Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2018). The relationship between teacher efficacy and students' academic achievement: A meta-analysis. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 46(4), 529-540.

Kim, Y., & Choi, M. (2020). Towards critical multicultural teacher education in the midst of ethno-nationalism: Korean pre-service teachers’ international learning experiences. Teaching and Teacher Education, 96, 103155.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Kristjánsson, K. (2020). An introduction to the special issue on wisdom and moral education. In: Taylor & Francis.

Kuusisto, E., & Tirri, K. (2019). Teachers’ moral competence in pedagogical encounters. In Education for Democratic Intercultural Citizenship (pp. 81-106). Brill Sense.

Law, E. H.-f. (2018). Reorienting curriculum practices in changing Asian societies. In Routledge international handbook of schools and schooling in Asia (pp. 75-76). Routledge.

Liebowitz, D. D., & Porter, L. (2019). The effect of principal behaviors on student, teacher, and school outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 89(5), 785-827.

Lowery, C. (2019). Moral literacy and school leadership: Perceptions of principals in southeast Ohio on the ethics of decision-making. Journal of Educational Administration.

Malone, D. (2017). Socioeconomic status: A potential challenge for parental involvement in schools. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 83(3), 58-62.

Mashburn, A. J., Hamre, B. K., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2006). Teacher and classroom characteristics associated with teachers’ ratings of prekindergartners’ relationships and behaviors. Journal of psychoeducational assessment, 24(4), 367-380.

Moltudal, S., Krumsvik, R., Jones, L., Eikeland, O. J., & Johnson, B. (2019). The Relationship between Teachers' Perceived Classroom Management Abilities and Their Professional Digital Competence: Experiences from Upper Secondary Classrooms. A Qualitative Driven Mixed Method Study. Designs for Learning, 11(1), 80-98.

Narvaez, D. (2021). Moral education in a time of human ecological devastation. Journal of Moral Education, 50(1), 55-67.

Naseer, H., Muhammad, Y., & Masood, S. (2020). Critical Thinking Skills in a Secondary School Pakistan Studies Textbook: A Qualitative Content Analysis. sjesr, 3(4), 84-95.

NEP. (2017). NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2017. G. o. Pakistan.

Nias, J. (1998). Why teachers need their colleagues: A developmental perspective. In International handbook of educational change (pp. 1257-1271). Springer.

Nishanbayeva, S., Kolumbayeva, S., Satynskaya, A., Zhiyenbayeva, S., Seiitkazy, P., & Kalbergenova, S. (2021). Some instructional problems in the formation of family and moral values of students. World Journal on Educational Technology: Current Issues, 13(3), 529-545.

Omar, S. (2018). An Investigation on the Perspectives of Parents on the Impact of the Western Teachers’ Values and Cultures on Developing their Children’s Character and Morality. Proceedings of the 8th international RAIS conference on social sciences,

Pijanowski, J. C., Hewitt, P. M., & Brady, K. P. (2009). Superintendents’ perceptions of the principal shortage. NASSP Bulletin, 93(2), 85-95.

Polat, S. (2018). An analysis of the multi-cultural characteristics of the pre-service teachers in terms of the values they have.

Pratama, E., & Ridha, M. (2019). Relationship Between Parents Socio Economic Status and Students Interest in Continuing to Vocational High School. Jurnal Neo Konseling, 1(1).

Rai, A., & Prakash, A. (2021). Leadership Competencies and Work Place Values: Keys to School Effectiveness in Public and Private Schools. International Journal of Applied, 11(1), 24-41.

Rissanen, I., Kuusisto, E., Hanhimäki, E., & Tirri, K. (2018). The implications of teachers’ implicit theories for moral education: A case study from Finland. Journal of Moral Education, 47(1), 63-77.

Sailin, S. N., & Mahmor, N. A. (2018). Improving student teachers’ digital pedagogy through meaningful learning activities. Malaysian Journal of Learning and Instruction, 15(2), 143-173.

Segev, A. (2017). Does classic school curriculum contribute to morality? Integrating school curriculum with moral and intellectual education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(1), 89-98.

Shabani Azadboni, M., & Safari, M. (2020). The relationship between professional ethics and conflict management in high school principals in the west of Mazandaran province. Management and Educational Perspective, 2(2), 59-76.

Shamshiri, M. R. (2017). The Impact of Moral Education on Religious Life. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 6(1), 763-776.

Shen, W., Huang, Y., & Fan, W. (2020). Morality and ability: institutional leaders’ perceptions of ideal leadership in Chinese research universities. Studies in Higher Education, 45(10), 2092-2100.

Siddiqui, R., & Habib, Z. (2021). Moral Education at Primary Level in Selected Private Schools of Karachi: Role of Teachers and Parents. Pakistan Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 9(2), 59-73.

Sider, S., Maich, K., & Morvan, J. (2017). School principals and students with special education needs: Leading inclusive schools. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 40(2), 1-31.

Suhadi, N., & Warman, S. (2017). Research Proposal: Effectiveness of Curriculum Activity towards the Establishment of Identity of Students of Higher Education Institutions in the Present.

Sule, D. S. (2018). Theory-practice integration in radiography education: the role of teaching strategies. The University of Liverpool (United Kingdom).

Tao, V. Y., Li, Y., Lam, K. H., Leung, C. W., Sun, C. I., & Wu, A. M. (2021). From teachers’ implicit theories of intelligence to job stress: The mediating role of teachers’ causal attribution of students’ academic achievement. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51(5), 522-533.

Ullah, O., Arshad, U., & Malik, U. (2021). How School Leader Implement the Curriculum? Problems, Prospects, and Way Forward. Global Educational Studies Review, VI, 6, 314-330.

Uwaezuoke, M.-R. I. (2020). Teaching ethics and morality education in Nigerian schools for sustainable development. UNIZIK Journal of Educational Research and Policy Studies, 1(1), 36-45.

von Stumm, S. (2017). Socioeconomic status amplifies the achievement gap throughout compulsory education independent of intelligence. Intelligence, 60, 57-62.

Wanders, F. H., Dijkstra, A. B., Maslowski, R., & Van der Veen, I. (2020). The effect of teacher-student and student-student relationships on the societal involvement of students. Research Papers in Education, 35(3), 266-286.

Wentzel, K. R., Russell, S., & Baker, S. (2016). Emotional support and expectations from parents, teachers, and peers predict adolescent competence at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 108(2), 242–255.




How to Cite

Unar, . N., & Hussain, P. D. N. (2021). Students’ Morality Development in Primary Public Schools of Sindh Province: An Application of Moral Foundation Theory. International Research Journal of Education and Innovation, 2(3), 231–248.