School Climate and its Relationship with Students’ Academic Achievement
Main Article Content
This correlational study is to describe the levels of school climate and its relationship with students’ academic achievement. The population of the study consisted of all students of Zarghoon Town, Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan who were attending public high schools. In accordance with the L.R. Gay criterion, out of 1650, 328 students or 20% of the class was chosen as the sample. One sample t-test was used to determine how students felt about the school, and Pearson Correlation was used to determine how well students performed academically in relation to the school atmosphere. According to the study's findings, students believe that having a supportive school environment is crucial for their academic achievement. Additionally, there is a correlation between students' academic success and the climate of the school.
Adeogun, A. A., & Olisaemeka, B. U. (2011). Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development. Online Submission, 8(4), 552-557.
Ali, Z., & Siddiqui, M. U. R. (2016). School Climate: Learning Environment as a Predictor of Student's Academic Achievement. Journal of Research & Reflections in Education (JRRE), 10(1).
Barnes, K., Brynard, S., & De Wet, C. (2012). The influence of school culture and school climate on violence in schools of the Eastern Cape Province. South African Journal of Education, 32(1), 69-82.
Bosworth, K., Ford, L., & Hernandaz, D. (2011). School climate factors contributing to student and faculty perceptions of safety in select Arizona schools. Journal of school health, 81(4), 194-201.
Branson, C. M., Baig, S., & Begum, A. (2015). Personal values of principals and their manifestation in student behavior: A district-level study in Pakistan. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 43(1), 107-128.
Bronfenbrenner, Urie (1979). The ecology of human development: experiments by nature and design. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P. A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. Handbook of Child Psychology, 568-586.
Caldarella, P., Shatzer, R. H., Gray, K. M., Young, K. R., & Young, E. L. (2011). The effects of school-wide positive behavior support on middle school climate and student outcomes. RMLE Online, 35(4), 1-14.
Dahar, M. A., Dahar, R. A., Dahar, R. T., & Faize, F. A. (2011). Impact of teacher quality on the academic achievement of students at a secondary stage in Punjab (Pakistan). European Journal of Social Sciences, 19(1), 97-105.
Daily, S. M., Mann, M. J., Kristjansson, A. L., Smith, M. L., & Zullig, K. J. (2019). School climate and academic achievement in middle and high school students. Journal of School Health, 89(3), 173-180.
Devine, J. F., & Cohen, J. (2007). Making your school safe: strategies to protect children and promote learning. Columbia University, NY: Teachers College Press. Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, 20 U.S.C. & 6301 et seq. (2015).
DeWitt, P., & Slade, S. (2014). School Climate Change: How Do I Build a Positive Environment for Learning? (ASCD Arias). ASCD.
Fein, R. A. (2002). Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. DIANE Publishing. Page-1-22 Retrieved online https://books.google.com.pk/books
Gase, L. N., Gomez, L. M., Kuo, T., Glenn, B. A., Inkelas, M., & Ponce, N. A. (2017). Relationships among student, staff, and administrative measures of school climate and student health and academic outcomes. Journal of School Health, 87(5), 319-328.
Gray, J., Kruse, S., & Tarter, C. J. (2016). Enabling school structures, collegial trust and academic emphasis: Antecedents of professional learning communities. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 44(6), 875-891.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. H. (1998). Exploring the principal's contribution to school effectiveness: 1980?1995. School effectiveness and school improvement, 9(2), 157-191.
Haynes, N. M., Emmons, C., & Ben-Avie, M. (1997). School climate as a factor in student adjustment and achievement. Journal of educational and psychological consultation, 8(3), 321-329.
Heck, and Marcoulides, (1996) School culture and performance: testing the in variance of an organizational model. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 7(1), 76–96.
Hijazi, S. T., & Naqvi, S. M. M. (2006). A study of the factors affecting students` achievement in Pakistan. Bangladesh E-Journal of Sociology, 3(1), 70-81.
Hoy, W. K. (1990) Organizational climate and culture: a conceptual analysis of the school workplace.’ Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 1(2), 149–168.
Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., & Kottkamp, R. B. (1991). Open schools, healthy schools: Measuring organizational climate. Corwin Press.
Hoy, W. K., and Tarter, C.J. (1997). The Road to Open and Healthy School. A Handbook for change, Elementary and Middle School Edition (Thousand Oaks,CA: Orwin).
Hoy, W. K., & Sabo, D. J. (1998). Quality middle schools: Open and healthy. Corwin Press, Inc., 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320-2218 (paperback: ISBN-0-8039-6421-8, $24.95; cloth: ISBN-0-8039-6420-X, $55.95).
Hoy, W. K., & Feldman, J. A. (1999). Organizational health profiles for high schools. School climate: Measuring, improving and sustaining healthy learning environments, 85.
Jacob, M. (2017). Improving the Social-Emotional Climate of our nation's schools through the Whole School Climate Framework.
Jia, Y., Way, N., Ling, G., Yoshikawa, H., Chen, X., Hughes, D., & Lu, Z. (2009).The influence of student perceptions of school climate on socio emotional and academic adjustment: A comparison of Chinese and American adolescents. Child Development, 80(5), 1514-1530.
Johnson, B., & Stevens, J. J. (2006). Student achievement and elementary teachers’ perceptions of school climate. Learning Environments Research, 9(2), 111-122.
Kuhn, D., Siegler, R., Damon, W., & Lerner, R. M. (2003). Handbook of child psychology. Handbook of child psychology.
Kwong, D., & Davis, J. R. (2015). School Climate for Academic Success: A Multilevel Analysis of School Climate and Student Outcomes. Journal of Research in Education, 25(2), 68-81.
Loukas, A. (2007). What is school climate, Leadership compass, 5(1), 1-3.
MacNeil, A. J., Prater, D. L., & Busch, S. (2009). The effects of school culture and climate on student achievement. International Journal of leadership in Education, 12(1), 73-84.
Mitchell, M. M., Bradshaw, C. P., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Student and teacher perceptions of school climate: A multilevel exploration of patterns of discrepancy. Journal of School Health, 80(6), 271-279.
Moran, E., Carlson, J. S., & Tableman, B. (2012). School Climate and Learning. In Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 2962-2966). Springer US.
Morrison, G. M., Furlong, M. M. J., & Morrison, R. L. (1994). School violence to school safety: reframing the issue for school psychologists. School Psychology Review, 23, 236- 256.
Murray, N. G., Low, B. J., Hollis, C., Cross, A. W., & Davis, S. M. (2007). Coordinated school health programs and academic achievement: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of school health, 77(9), 589-600.
National School Climate Center. (2014). School Climate. Retrieved from http://www.schoolclimate.org/climate/
National School Climate Center. (2015). FAQs for the CSCI. Retrieved from http://www.schoolclimate.org/climate/docuents/faqs-csci-September-2017.pdf.
Okendo, E., Christopher, N., & Jenifer, M. (2014). Relationships between school climate and students’ academic achievement in ksce examinations: a case of kisiicounty-kenya [abstract]. European-American Journal, 1(2), 1-17.
Parisi, J. M., Ramsey, C. M., Carlson, M. C., Xue, Q. L., Huang, J., Romani, W. A., & Tan, E. J. (2015). Impact of Experience Corps participation on school climate. Prevention Science, 16(5), 744-753.
Rafiq, H. M. W., Fatima, T., Sohail, M. M., Saleem, M., & Khan, M. A. (2013).Parental involvement and academic achievement: A study on secondary school students of Lahore, Pakistan. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(8), 209-223.
Riekie, H., Aldridge, J. M., & Afari, E. (2017). The role of the school climate in high school students’ mental health and identity formation: A South Australian study. British Educational Research Journal, 43(1), 95-123.
Rovai, A. P., Wighting, M. J., & Liu, J. (2005). School climate. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 6(4).
Ruiz, L. D., McMahon, S. D., & Jason, L. A. (2018). The Role of Neighborhood Context and School Climate in School?Level Academic Achievement. American journal of community psychology.
Salfi, N. A., & Saeed, M. (2007). Relationship between school size, school culture and students' achievement at the secondary level in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 21(7), 606-620. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/09513540710822201
Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco: Josey-Bass. Google Scholar.
Schein, E. H. (1996). Culture: The missing concept in organization studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 229-240.'
Sekaran, U., & Bougie, R. (2003). Research Methods for Business: A Skill-building Approach. USA: John Willey & Sons.
Shahzad, K., & Naureen, S. (2017). Impact of Teacher Self-Efficacy on Secondary School Students’ Academic Achievement. Journal of Education and Educational Development, 4(1), 48-72.
Sulak, T. N. (2016). School climate and academic achievement in suburban schools. Education and Urban Society, 48(7), 672-684.
Tayyaba, S. (2012). Rural-urban gaps in academic achievement, schooling conditions, student, and teachers' characteristics in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 26(1), 6-26.
Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins-D’Alessandro, A. (2013). A review of school climate research. Review of educational research, 83(3), 357-385.
Voight, A., & Nation, M. (2016). Practices for improving secondary school climate: A systematic review of the research literature. American journal of community psychology, 58(1-2), 174-191.
Wang, M.T., & Degol, J. L. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 315-352.
Wertheimer, P. A. (1971). School climate and student learning. The Phi Delta Kappan, 52(9), 527-530.
Wilson, D. (2004). The interface of school climate and school connectedness and relationships with aggression and victimization. Journal of School Health, 74, 293- 299.